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Offline Monsignor de Beaumanoir

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Re: Following Orders
« Reply #345 on: August 04, 2008, 09:06:40 AM »
And now, on a more serious note, I thought I would add the stuff I've compiled from WIKI, and start a "Meet the Masters" of the Temple post.

Here goes....... ;D

« Last Edit: August 04, 2008, 10:39:08 AM by Warrior_Monk »

Offline Monsignor de Beaumanoir

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Re: Following Orders
« Reply #346 on: August 04, 2008, 09:16:01 AM »
Each man who held the position of Grand Master of the Knights Templar was the supreme commander of the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (also known as the Knights Templar). While many Grand Masters chose to hold the position for life, abdication was not unknown. Some masters chose to leave for life in monasteries or diplomacy. Grand Masters often led their knights into battle on the front line and the numerous occupational hazards of battle made some their office durations very short.  ;)

Grand Masters
1.   Hugues de Payens (1118-1136)
2.   Robert de Craon (1136-1147)
3.   Everard des Barres (1147-1149)
4.   Bernard de Tremelay (1149-1153)
5.   André de Montbard (1153-1156)
6.   Bertrand de Blanchefort (1156-1169)
7.   Philippe de Milly (1169-1171)
8.   Odo de St Amand  (1171-1179)
9.   Arnold of Torroja (1181-1184)
10.   Gérard de Ridefort  (1185-1189)
11.   Robert de Sablé (1191-1193)
12.   Gilbert Horal (1193-1200)
13.   Phillipe de Plessis (1201-1208)
14.   Guillaume de Chartres (1209-1219)
15.   Pedro de Montaigu (1218-1232)
16.   Armand de Périgord (1232-1244)
17.   Richard de Bures (Disputed) (1244/5-1247)[1]
18.   Guillaume de Sonnac (1247-1250)
19.   Renaud de Vichiers (1250-1256)
20.   Thomas Bérard (1256-1273)
21.   Guillaume de Beaujeu (1273-1291)
22.   Thibaud Gaudin (1291-1292)
23.   Jacques de Molay (1292-1314)

Offline Monsignor de Beaumanoir

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Re: Following Orders
« Reply #347 on: August 04, 2008, 09:16:37 AM »
Hugues de Payens

Hugues de Payens was probably born at Château Payns, about 10 km from Troyes, in Champagne. He was originally a vassal of Count Hugh of Champagne, whom he accompanied on the First Crusade. It is likely that Hugues served in the army of Godfroi de Boullion during the Crusade. Count Hugh of Champagne visited Jerusalem for a second time in 1108, accompanied by Hugues, who remained there after he returned to France. He organized the original nine monk-knights to defend pilgrims to the Holy Land in response to the call to action of Pope Urban II.
De Payens approached King Baldwin II of Jerusalem with eight knights, two of whom were brothers and all of whom were his relatives by either blood or marriage, in order to form the first of the Knights Templar.
The other knights were Godfrey de Saint-Omer, Payen de Montdidier, Archambaud de St. Agnan, Andre de Montbard, Geoffrey Bison, and two men recorded only by the names of Rossal and Gondamer. The ninth knight remains unknown, although some have speculated that it was Count Hugh of Champagne himself.

As Grand Master, he led the Order for almost twenty years until his death, helping to establish the Order's foundations as an important and influential international military and financial institution.
On his visit to England and Scotland in 1128, he raised men and money for the Order, and also founded their first House in London and another near Edinburgh at Balantrodoch [1], now known as Temple, Midlothian.
He died in Palestine in 1136 and was succeeded as Grand Master by Robert de Craon.

Robert de Craon

Robert de Craon (died January 13, 1147) was the second Grand Master of the Knights Templar, from June 1136 until his death.

He was born around the turn of the 12th century, the youngest of the three sons of Renaud de Craon. He settled in Aquitaine and was engaged to the daughter of the lord of Angoumois, but gave up his fiancée and travelled to Palestine after learning of the foundation of the Templar Order by Hughes de Payens. He soon showed his military valour and his piety, and in 1136, after the death of Hughes, he was chosen as the new Grand Master. He proved to be a brilliant organizer and legislator, and turned the Order into a major force in the Crusader states. On March 29, 1139, Pope Innocent II issued the bull Omne Datum Optimum, which exempted the order from tithes and made them independent of any ecclesiastical jurisdiction. The Templars were also granted the habit of a red cross over a white tunic, which has since become the popular image of any crusader.

He was less fortunate as a military leader. As soon as he had been elected, he defeated Zengi, the emir of Aleppo and let his knights plunder the enemy camp; Zengi returned and destroyed the unorganized pillagers. Robert authorized the Spanish Templars to lead a naval expedition of about 70 ships against Lisbon, but this also ended in defeat. In 1140 the Templars resisted a numerically superior Turkish army at the Battle of Tecua. In 1143, after protracted negotiations between Raymond Berenguer IV (the Count of Barcelona and a Templar) the order's mission on the Iberian peninsula was defined. According to William of Tyre, Robert participated in the Council of Acre during the Second Crusade in 1148, but according to the Obituary of Reims, he died in January of 1147, and was succeeded by Everard des Barres in April of that year.

Everard des Barres

Everard des Barres (died 1174) was the third Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1147 to 1151.

As Preceptor of the Templars in France from 1143, he was one of the highest dignitaries of the Order when Robert de Craon died in 1147. He was chosen to succeed Robert, and as soon as he was elected, he accompanied Louis VII of France on the Second Crusade, and was among those sent ahead to Constantinople before Louis' arrival there. He later saved Louis during a battle with the Seljuk Turks in Pisidia.

According to the chronicler Odo of Deuil, Everard was extremely pious and valiant. He seems to have had a strong influence on Louis. After the failure of the crusade at the Siege of Damascus in 1148, Louis returned to France, followed by Everard, who was in charge of the king's treasury. Everard's Templars stayed behind and helped defend Jerusalem against a Turkish raid in 1149.

Back in France, Everard abdicated officially in 1151 and became a monk at Clairvaux, despite the protests of the Templars. He was succeeded by Bernard de Tremelay (who actually led the Order since Everard's departure in 1149) and died in 1174.

Bernard de Tremelay

Bernard de Tramelay (died August 16, 1153) was the fourth Grand Master of the Knights Templar.

He was born in the castle of Tramelay near Saint-Claude in the Jura. According to Du Cange, he succeeded a certain Hugues as Master of the Temple, although this Hugues is otherwise unknown. He was elected Grand Master in June of 1151, after the abdication of Everard des Barres, who had returned to France following the Second Crusade. King Baldwin III of Jerusalem granted him the ruined city of Gaza, which Bernard rebuilt for the Templars.

In 1153 the Templars participated in the Battle of Ascalon, a fortress at that time controlled by Egypt. The Templars constructed a siege tower, which was burned down by the Egyptian soldiers inside Ascalon. The wind caught the flames and part of the walls of Ascalon burned down as well.

According to William of Tyre, knights of the Order rushed through the breach without Baldwin's knowledge while Bernard prevented other crusaders from following, as he did not want to share the spoils of the city with the king. Bernard and about forty of his Templars were killed by the larger Egyptian garrison. Their bodies were displayed on the ramparts and their heads were sent to the sultan. Other more modern accounts say that William of Tyre's version may have been distorted, since it may have been based on the defensive accounts given by the army's commanders as to why they did not follow the Templars into the breach.

In yet another differing account by a Damascene chronicler in the city, the breach of the wall is mentioned as a pre-cursor to the fall of the city; he makes no mention of the incident with the Templars.

Regardless of which account is believed, Bernard was killed and beheaded during the fighting.

A few days later, Baldwin captured the fortress; shortly thereafter, the Templars elected André de Montbard as their Grand Master.

André de Montbard

André de Montbard (c. 1103-January 17, 1156) was the fifth Grand Master of the Knights Templar and also one of the new founders of the Order.

The Montbard family came from Hochadel in Burgundy, and André was an uncle of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, being a half-brother of Bernard's mother Aleth de Montbard[1]. He entered the Order in 1129 and went to Palestine, where he quickly rose to the rank of seneschal, deputy and second-in-command to the Grand Master. After the Siege of Ascalon on August 22, 1153, André was elected Grand Master to replace Bernard de Tremelay, who had been killed during an assault on the city on August 16.

He died on January 17, 1156, in Jerusalem and was succeeded by Bertrand de Blanchefort.

Offline Monsignor de Beaumanoir

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Re: Following Orders
« Reply #348 on: August 04, 2008, 09:17:10 AM »
Bertrand de Blanchefort

Bertrand de Blanchefort or Blanquefort was the sixth Grand Master of the Knights Templar, from 1156 until his death in 1169. He is known as a great reformer of the order.

He was born around 1109, although no exact date is recorded. The Obituary at Reims gives his death as 2nd January 1169. He was the youngest of a family of boys, the children of Lord Godfrey de Blanchefort of Guyenne. He trained in combat from a young age, but during his time as Grand Master, placed more emphasis on reform and negotiation. This helped to foster the Templars image as guardians, not brutes.

His earliest action as Grand Master was with Baldwin III of Jerusalem, with whom he fought against Nur ad-Din. However, he was taken prisoner after Baldwin was defeated at Banyas in 1157. The defeat allowed an ambush to be set for Blanchefort, who had dismissed his Frankish soldiers after battle ceased. He was held in captivity for three years in Aleppo before being released to Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus when the emperor made peace with Nur ad-Din.

Bertrand accompanied King Amalric I during the expedition against Egypt in 1163. The expedition ended in failure, despite the considerable numbers the Christians could draw upon. Bertrand refused to participate in a second expedition in 1168, as heavy losses were almost certain.

Blanchefort petitioned the Pope to use the title, "Master by Grace of God", which fitted the Templar's position as rising stars in the church, a favor which Rome gladly granted. His internal reforms were more important however. He wrote the "Retraits", which established structure within the order. This meant knights had clearer roles and protocols. He also established checks within the leaderships of the order, which stopped future Grand Masters deciding the direction of the Templars, without the backing of the knights. His work on creating negotiating roles within the order is also worth noting. After the failed expedition to Egypt, it was the Templars that helped draw up a peace treaty.

Philip of Milly

Philip of Milly, also known as Philip of Nablus (c. 1120-April 3, 1171) was the seventh Grand Master of the Knights Templar.

Philip was the son of Guy of Milly, a knight from Picardy who participated in the First Crusade, and his (possibly second) wife Stephanie of Flanders. Guy and Stephanie had three sons, all born in the Holy Land, of whom Philip was probably the oldest. He was first mentioned as Guy's son in 1138, and must have become lord of Nablus sometime between that date and 1144, when his name next appears. By this time he had also married his wife Isabella.

As lord of Nablus, Philip became one of the most influential barons in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. In 1144, Queen Melisende sent him to relieve the siege of Edessa, but he arrived after the city had already fallen. In 1148, upon the arrival of the Second Crusade, Philip participated in the council held at Acre, where he and the other native barons were overruled and the ill-fated decision to attack Damascus was made.

Along with the powerful Ibelin family, into which his half-sister Helvis had married, Philip was a supporter of Melisende during her conflict with her son Baldwin III. In the division of the kingdom in 1151, Melisende gained control of the southern part of the kingdom, including Nablus. Despite this arrangement, Philip seems to have been completely loyal to Baldwin, participating in the king's capture of Ascalon in 1153 and the relief of Banyas in 1157.

In July of 1161, as Melisende lay dying, Philip exchanged the lordship of Nablus with Baldwin III in order to become lord of Oultrejordain. This allowed Baldwin to regain control of the southern half of the kingdom while his mother was in no condition to oppose him, but he was probably also aiming to strengthen Oultrejordain with a powerful and loyal baron. Baldwin died in 1163 and was succeeded by his brother Amalric, who was a friend of Philip and a fellow supporter of Melisende during the earlier struggle in 1151.

Philip's personal life is largely a mystery, but it is known that sometime after he became lord of Oultrejordain, he made a pilgrimage the monastery of St. Catherine's on Mount Sinai. With his wife Isabella he had a son, Rainier (who predeceased him), and two daughters, Helena and Stephanie. Isabella died probably in 1166, which apparently caused Philip to take vows as a brother of the Knights Templar. His lands were inherited by his elder daughter, Helena, wife of Walter III of Brisebarre, lord of Beirut, and (after her death in 1168) by her daughter, Beatrice of Brisebarre.

Philip joined Amalric's invasion of Egypt in 1167. The Ibelin family later recalled an event during the siege of Bilbeis, in which Philip saved the life of Hugh of Ibelin, who had broken his leg when his horse fell in a ditch, although the veracity of this story is unknown. The Templars as a whole refused to support Amalric's invasion, and the king blamed them for the failure of the expedition. After the death of their Grand Master Bertrand de Blanchefort in January of 1169, Amalric pressured them to elect Philip in his place, which they did in August of that year. Not much is known about Philip's time as Grand Master, although he likely led the defense of Templar-held Gaza when Saladin, who had gained control of Egypt in 1169, attacked the city in 1170.

For unknown reasons he resigned as Grand Master in 1171, and was succeeded by Odo de St Amand. Philip accompanied Amalric to Constantinople as ambassador to the Byzantine Empire in order to restore good relations with them after the failure of the Egyptian invasion. He probably died on April 3, before reaching Constantinople.

Odo de St Amand

Odo de St. Amand was the 8th Grand Master of the Knights Templar, between 1171 and 1179.

St Amand was born to a family from Limousin, France. He was Marshal of Jerusalem and later Viscount. He was a headstrong leader of the order, which earned him praise and resentment in equal measure. An example of this can be found 1172. When a Templar knight, Gauthier du Maisnil, was accused of murdering an Islamic dignitary by King Amaury I, St. Amand refused to hand him over. He cited the Papal Bull which stipulated the only power over the Templars was Rome.

St. Amand took part in several expeditions during his time as Grand Master. He spearheaded military action in Naplouse, Jericho and Djerach, scoring considerable victories with the Templars. Perhaps his finest hour was at the battle of Montgisard, where his knights convincingly defeated a superior detachment of Saladin's army.
In March 1179, St Amand oversaw the construction of the Chastellet fortress. Its position and impregnability made it a thorn in Saladin's side and he offered considerable amounts of money to have it destroyed. It was so effective that Saladin's May assault on Jerusalem in 1179 was defeated. His forces broke on the fortress's thick walls, and the fierce fighting of the Templars stationed there scored heavy losses on the Muslims. Trying to capitalize on the victory, an assault on the Islamic forces was organized, the Battle of Marj Ayun. It was spearheaded by King Baldwin IV, Raymond III of Tripoli, Odo de St Amand and Roger des Moulins. However, Saladin had regrouped and decimated the Christian forces. Baldwin IV escaped the carnage, taking with him the True Cross, but St. Amand was captured and taken hostage.

In August 1179, the new Templar fortress was captured and the knights stationed there were beheaded by the Muslim forces. St Amand died in one of Saladin's jails sometime during 1180, although no exact date survives. His release was proposed, in exchange for one Saladin's captive nephews, but negotiations came too late.

Not only were St. Amand's victories important from a military standpoint, but they were vital in gaining fresh pledges of money and resources from homeland countries in Europe. Inspired by the Templar's sensational victory at Montgisard, Renaud, Lord of Margat, donated half of the income from several of his cities to the order's cause.

Offline Monsignor de Beaumanoir

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Re: Following Orders
« Reply #349 on: August 04, 2008, 09:17:44 AM »
Arnold of Torroja

Arnold of Torroja (in Catalan, Arnau de Torroja) was the ninth Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1181 until his death in 1184.

While no date of birth survives for Torroja, he was very old at his death, being in excess of 70 years when he was elected as Grand Master. He had served in the order for many years and was the Templar Master in both Spain and Provence.

Torroja's military career had mainly been focused on the Reconquista, fighting Muslims in Spain and Portugal. He was principally active in Aragon.His appointment as Grand Master was likely due to his image as an outsider i.e. an experienced Templar who's power base was outside the Holy Land. This appealed to the order as the previous Grand Master, Odo de St Amand, had become embroiled in Jerusalem's politics, but it did mean Torroja was inexperienced in the "political situation of the Latin States". He became the order's new leader in 1181.

During the Grand Master's reign, the Knights Hospitaller reached a new peak in their influence. There had been rivalry between orders previously, but factionalism in the face renewed Muslim pressure was unacceptable. The two Grand Masters met for mediation with Pope Lucius III and King Baldwin IV and the problems were resolved. In fact, Torroja is recorded as a skilled diplomat himself, acting as a mediator between several political groups in the East. He also conducted successful peace negotiations with Saladin after raids by Raynald of Chatillon in Transjordan.

In 1184, Torroja set out with Patriarch Heraclius and Grand Master Roger de Moulins of the Knights Hospitaller to gather European support for the Kingdom of Jerusalem. They planned to visit Italy, England and France, but he fell ill and died at Verona on September 30, 1184. He was succeeded as Grand Master by Gérard de Ridefort.

Gerard de Ridefort

Gerard of Ridefort (died October 1, 1189) was Grand Master of the Knights Templar from the end of 1184 until his death.

Gerard of Ridefort is thought probably to have been of Flemish origin, although some nineteenth-century writers suggested an Anglo-Norman background, apparently through misreading his designation as "of Bideford". It is uncertain when he arrived in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He appears in the charter record in the service of Baldwin IV of Jerusalem in the late 1170s, and by 22 October 1179 held the rank of Marshal of the kingdom.

It seems that he expected Raymond III of Tripoli to give him the hand of an available heiress. However, when Cécile Dorel inherited her father's coastal fief of Botrun in the County of Tripoli, Raymond married her (before March 1181) to Plivain or Plivano, the nephew of a Pisan merchant, for a bride-price of 10,000 bezants. By the mid-thirteenth century, when the Old French Continuation of William of Tyre (the so-called Chronicle of Ernoul) was compiled, the story of the bride of Botrun had evolved into a fanciful legend in which Plivain's uncle put the young lady (there renamed Lucie) on the scales, and offered Raymond her weight in gold, to obtain the marriage.

Gerard fell seriously ill, after which he took vows as a Templar. By June 1183 he held the rank of seneschal of the Order. He was elected Grand Master in late 1184 or early 1185, after the death of Arnold of Torroja in Verona.

Gerard continued to hold a grudge against Raymond of Tripoli, which influenced some of his political manœuvrings. In 1186, when Baldwin V of Jerusalem died, Gerard took the side of Queen Sibylla and her husband Guy of Lusignan in the ensuing succession struggle. Raymond and his allies the Ibelin family were the leaders of the opposing faction, who supported the claim of Sibylla's younger half-sister Isabella.

In the crisis of 1187, Gerard used the money sent by Henry II of England and deposited with the Templars in Jerusalem to Jerusalem to hire additional troops for the arrière ban to defend the Kingdom of Jerusalem from Saladin. (Henry had sent the funds for his own future crusading plans, in penance for the murder of Thomas Becket: some of it was deposited with the Templars, some with the Hospitallers, in Jerusalem and Tyre). Gerard and fewer than 100 Templars, together with some Hospitallers, attacked Saladin's son al-Afdal at the Battle of Cresson; al-Afdal, however, had over 5000 men. The Hospitaller Grand Master Roger de Moulins was killed; Gerard, though wounded, was one of the few survivors. Gerard's report of the battle was the source for a short narrative written by Pope Urban III to Baldwin of Exeter, archbishop of Canterbury.

In July of the same year Gerard led the Templars at the Battle of Hattin. Saladin had captured Tiberias and Guy was contemplating a march on the city to retake it. Raymond advised him to wait for Saladin to come to them, since they were in a well-defended, well-watered position, and would have to cross a dry open plain to reach Tiberias. Gerard opposed this, and convinced Guy to continue the march. He was supported by Reginald of Chatillon, a fellow enemy of Raymond.
The Crusaders ended up trapped on the dry plain and were defeated on July 4. Raymond and several other nobles escaped, but Gerard, Guy, and Raynald were captured by Saladin. The rest of the Templar prisoners were executed. Gerard remained a prisoner until 1188, during which time his Order was commanded by Brother Thierry (Terricus) from Tyre.

Gerard was given the condition by Saladin that, if he could convince a Templar fortress to surrender peacfully, he would be set free. He succeeded and on his release went to Tortosa, where he ably led the Templars' defence of their castle, which held out after the fall of the town to Saladin's siege forces. Having taken back control of his order from Thierry, he seems to have seized the remainder of Henry II's money which had been left with the Templars in Tyre. This provoked a complaint from the city's defender, Conrad of Montferrat, in letters of 20 September 1188 to Baldwin of Exeter and Frederick Barbarossa: "...graver still, the Master of the Temple has made off with the King of England’s alms".

In 1189, he again joined forces with Guy, taking the Templars to the Siege of Acre. He was either killed in battle or executed after being taken prisoner by Saladin on October 1.

Robert de Sablé

Robert de Sablé was Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1191 to 1193 and Lord of Cyprus from 1191 to 1192.

No exact record of his birth date exists, but it is believed he was relatively old at the time of his death. He was born to a respected military family in Anjou and was "a leading Angevin vassal of the King". His Lordship was based on a cluster of lands in the River Sarthe valley, which he inherited in the 1160s. He was succeeded in Anjou by his daughter Margaret de Sablé, who by marriage passed the entire honor to William des Roches, also a knight of the Third Crusade. Robert died in the Holy land on the 23rd September 1192 or 1193.

In 1173, Robert supported Henry the Young King in a revolt against Henry II (Angevin Civil War). The uprising was crushed but Robert must have remained in favor with the Angevin Kings, as Richard I would later be instrumental in his appointment as Grand Master. He contributed money to French monastic houses in 1190 as a way of making amends.

Despite only having a short tenure, de Sable's reign was filled with campaigning, and successful campaigning at that. The might of Richard the Lion Heart's strategy, seasoned troops and the elite Templar knights scored many victories. During the 3rd Crusade, they laid siege to the city of Acre, which soon fell. Throughout August 1191, they also recaptured many fortresses and cities along the Palestinian coast, which had been lost previously.

The new coalition's finest hour was the Battle of Arsuf, September 7th 1191. Saladin's Muslim forces appeared to have become far stronger than the Christians, and a decisive victory was desperately needed. Pooling all of the crusader's strength, the Knights Hospitaller joined the ranks, plus many knights from de Sable's native Anjou, Maine, and Brittany. They met Saladin's troops on the dry plains and soon broke his ranks. Those who stayed to fight were killed, and the remaining Islamic troops were forced to retreat.
Acquisition of Cyprus

At the end of 1191, Richard Lion Heart agreed to sell Cyprus to the Templars for 25,000 pieces of silver. Richard had plundered the Island from the Byzantine forces of a rival Emperor in Cyprus some months earlier and had no real use for it. Whereas the Hospitallers would later establish solid bases in Rhodes and Malta, de Sable failed to do the same with Cyprus. He was Lord for 2 years, until he gave (or sold) the island to Guy de Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, as he was without a Kingdom.
De Sable did manage to establish a Chieftain House of the Order in Saint-Jean d’Acre, which remained for almost a century.

De Sable was lucky to have been Grand Master at all, as at the time of Gérard de Ridefort's death, he was not even a member of the Templar Order. However, the senior knights had become increasingly opposed to Masters fighting on the front line, and the capture and beheading of Grand Master Gerard de Ridefort became the final straw. They delayed elections for over a year so that the rules regarding active service of Grand Masters could be reviewed. During this hiatus, de Sable did join the order, just in time to be considered for election. When he was made Grand Master, he had been a Templar knight for less than a year.

Offline Monsignor de Beaumanoir

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Re: Following Orders
« Reply #350 on: August 04, 2008, 09:18:16 AM »
Gilbert Horal

Gilbert Horal was the 12th Grand Master of the Knights Templar.

He was born an Aragonaise (from Aragon in Spain), and entered the Templars at a young age. He stayed in the provinces of Provence and Aragon, where he took part in the battles of Reconquista, and became Grand Master of the province until 1190. In 1193, after the death of Robert de Sablé, he became Grand Master of the Order, and in 1194, Pope Céléstin III gave the Templars more privileges.

Horal was known for wanting peace between the Christians and the Moslems, though some disagreed and thought that this showed treason and collusion with the enemy.
During his leadership the quarrel between the Templars and Hospitaliers increased. The arbitration of Pope Innocent III was in favour of the Hospitaliers because the Pope could not forgive the Templars for making the agreements that they had with Malek-Adel, brother of Saladin.

Another of Gilbert Horal's accomplishments was that he took the time to organize and consolidate the possessions of the Templars in France and Apulia.

In Spain, the Templars took an active part in the Reconquista, and were given the fortress of Alhambra by Alfonso II of Aragon as a reward for their efforts in the battle.

He died in December 1200.

Phillipe de Plessis

Phillipe de Plessis (1165 – 1209) was the 13th Grand Master of the Knights Templar.

 He was born in the fortress of Plessis-Macé, Anjou, France. In 1189 he joined the Third Crusade as a simple knight, and discovered the Order of the Temple in Palestine. After the death of Gilbert Horal he became Grand Master. He helped uphold the treaty between Saladin and Richard I. In the renewal of this treaty in 1208 he suggested that the Teutonic Order and Hospitallers should make a new peace treaty offer with Malek-Adel. The accord was criticised by Pope Innocent III.

There were few military actions during his rule; the Fourth Crusade never arrived in the Holy Land. The German King was in opposition to the Knights regarding the Gastein stronghold. The Templars were initially expelled from Germany, but the pope intervened in the dispute.

Relations with the Hospitaliers were tense. During his rule the Order of the Temple reached its greatest height in Europe.

His name is last documented in 1209. The Obituary of Reims gives the date of his death as November 12, 1209.

Guillaume de Chartres

Guillaume de Chartres, Prince of the Cistercian Principality of Seborga, was a grand master of the Knights Templar 1210 – 26 August 1218.

In 1210, he assisted at the coronation of Jean de Brienne as King of Jerusalem. In 1211, he arbitrated between Leo II of Armenia and the Templars, regarding the castle of Bagras. During his rule, the order flourished in Spain, achieving important victories against the Moors.

Guillaume died of pestilence, (possibly endemic typhus), secondary to being wounded during the siege of Damietta, in Seborga in the Holy Land.

Pedro de Montaigu

Pedro de Montaigu was Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1218 to 1232.

He took part in the Fifth Crusade and was against the Sultan of Egypt's conditions for raising the siege of Damietta. He was Master of the French Aragon province from 1211, until his death.

A close friend of Guillaume de Chartres, it was most likely the trust the previous Grand Master had in him which meant he himself was elected so quickly in 1218. At the same time, the Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller was Guerin de Montaigu, who is likely to have been Pedro's brother. The close relationship between the two military orders during this period was probably a result of this.

His actions against the Muslim forces working for the liberation of Jerusalem were so effective, that they were forced to propose a surrender. In return for the Templars calling off their siege at Damietta, the Islamic forces would return many Frankish soldiers, halt attacks on Jerusalem and most importantly, return the part of the True Cross, captured from the Europeans at the Battle of Hattin. Catholic pressure meant the Muslim terms were refused and the carnage continued. His military victories, aided by the Hospitaller knights, made him a renowned warrior.

Armand de Périgord

Armand de Périgord (or Hermann de Pierre-Grosse) (1178 – 1247?) was a descendant of the Counts of Périgord and a Grand Master of the Knights Templar.

He was master of the Province of Apulia and Sicily from 1205 to 1232. In 1232, he was elected Grand Master of the Templars. He organized attacks on Cana, Safita, and Sephoria, and against the Muslim positions around the Sea of Galilee. All of these expeditions were failures and diminished the Templars' effectiveness.

In 1236, on the border between Syria and Cilicia, 120 knights, along with some archers and Turcopoles, were ambushed near the town of Darbsâk (Terbezek). In the first phase of the battle, the Templars reached the town but they met fierce resistance. When reinforcements from Aleppo arrived, the Templars were massacred. Fewer than twenty of them returned to their castle in Bagras, fifteen km from the battle.

In September 1239, Armand arrived at Acre. He made a treaty with Sultan of Damascus, in parallel with the Hospitaller treaty with the Sultan of Egypt. In 1244 the Sultan of Damascus demanded that the Templars help repel the Khwarezmians from Asia Minor. In October 1244, the Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights, together with the Sultan of Damas, confronted with Sultan of Egypt and his Khwarezmian allies at the Battle of La Forbie. The Christian-Muslim coalition was defeated, with more than 30,000 deaths. Some Templars and Hospitallers reached Ascalon, still in Christian hands. Armand de Périgord may have been killed during the battle, but may have been captured and survived until 1247.

Offline Monsignor de Beaumanoir

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Re: Following Orders
« Reply #351 on: August 04, 2008, 09:19:50 AM »
Richard de Bures

Richard de Bures may have been seventeenth Grand Master of the Knights Templar, from 1245 to 1247, although many sources make no mention of him. It is likely he simply acted as a Master during Perigord's captivity.

Guillaume de Sonnac

Guillaume de Sonnac was Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1247 to 1250.

Sonnac was born to a noble family in the French region of Rouergue. No date of birth survives for the Grand Master. He was described by Matthew Paris as "a discreet and circumspect man, who was also skilled and experienced in the affairs of war".
De Sonnac was an established member of the order before his election as Grand Master. He was the Preceptor of Aquitaine in France for the Templars and arrived in the Holy Land around autumn of 1247, finding "the remnants of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in a precarious state. Grand Master Armand de Périgord had been taken prisoner at the Battle of La Forbie in 1244, and after negotiations for his release failed two years later, De Sonnac was proposed as a replacement. Before his first year in the East was out, he was the order's new leader.

De Sonnac's tenure was a particularly violent one. By 1247, the Christians had lost power bases in Tiberias, Mount Tabor, Belvoir and Ascalon. This prompted a fresh campaign ( Seventh Crusade) from King Louis IX of France, who landed at Limassol, Cyprus on 17 September 1248. De Sonnac sailed from Acre to meet him and make preparations. Shortly after, the new Grand Master received an Emir from the Sultan, offering the crusaders a peace deal. De Sonnac related this to the French King, who ordered him to cease any negotiations without gaining Royal permission first. This ensured the new campaign would be concluded with violence, not diplomacy.

On 5 June 1249, the French crusader army, combined with de Sonnac and his Templar knights, attempted to land in Egypt. They targeted Damietta, just as the Fifth Crusade had years earlier. Fighting on the Egyptian beaches was heavy and the King fought in waist-high water alongside the troops. After a prolonged battle, the Muslims were forced to retreat, leaving the city almost undefended. The next day the de Sonnac wrote to Robert of Sandford, telling how on the morning after the battle, Damietta had been seized with only one crusader casualty.
At the end of November, de Sonnac and King Louis began their march to Cairo, via Mansurah.

De Sonnac's next engagement was at the Battle of Mansurah, for the city containing the area's defensive force, the last obstacle to central Egypt. The Muslims had been protected by the swollen Nile, but on 8 February 1250, a local Bedouin showed them where they could cross. De Sonnac, Robert of Artois, the King's brother and William II Longespee, leader of the English troops, launched an assault on the Muslim force without the main Frankish army. Taken by surprise, the Egyptians quickly retreated from the riverbank into the city and the Count foolishly gave chase, outnumbered and with no back-up from the bulk of the French forces.

John of Joinville claimed that the Count meant to follow on his own and that the rest of the raiding party did so as to not look cowardly. The Templars "thought that they would be dishonored if they allowed the Count to go before them". However, another source, Matthew Paris, reported that de Sonnac was forced into the assault by the Count. Robert was "bellowing and swearing disgracefully as is the French custom", and blaming the Templars and other religious orders for causing the real downfall of the Kingdom. Disgusted, de Sonnac returned to his men and prepared to chase down the numerically superior enemy.

Whatever the fact, the three commanders charged into Mansurah with tired men and no reinforcements and were quickly drawn into heavy fighting. Completely surrounded, "like an island in the sea", de Sonnac refused to surrender and his Templars fought to the last man. Earl Longespee was killed in the fighting, and the Count either fell in combat or drowned fleeing to safety. De Sonnac's escape from the city would make him a famous warrior, when many had considered him more suited to diplomacy. With heavy wounds, only one eye and two remaining knights of the original 280, he fought through the Egyptian army and out of the city, where he found the main Frankish army. He refused to rest and after receiving medical attention he returned and helped repulse a Muslim raiding party.

The Christian forces camped outside the city and were under constant attack. A major assault was launched by the Muslims on 6 April (Battle of Fariskur)
and de Sonnac joined the Frankish charge to meet the enemy. Fighting with an eyepatch he fought along the riverbank until he was finally overwhelmed by the attackers. Blinded fully by a second injury to the head, he was hacked down and killed by Muslim troops.

“Next to the troops of Walter of Chatillon was brother Sonnac, Master of the Templars, with those few brothers that had survived Tuesday's battle. He had built a defence in front of him with the Saracen engines which we had captured. When the Saracens came to attack him, they threw Greek fire onto the barrier he had made; and the fire caught easily, for the Templars had put a large quantity of deal planks there. And you should know that the Turks did not wait for the fire to burn itself out, but rushed upon the Templars among the scorching flames. And in this battle, Brother William (Guillaume), Master of the Templars, lost an eye; and he had lost the other on the previous Shrove Tuesday; and that Lord died as a consequence, may God absolve him! And you should know that there was at least an acre of land behind the Templars, which was so covered with arrows fired by the Saracens, that none of the ground could be seen”

It was the death of a man who sought peace where possible, but fought ferociously on the battlefield. He was succeeded as Grand Master by Renaud de Vichiers.

De Sonnac was the first Grand Master to formerly record the intricacies of the Templar hierarchy. He added this to existing archives, codified them and stored them in a safe place so that the order would have accurate records in future years. It is certainly ironic that, for a man responsible for creating the order's most in-depth records, there is no indication of when he was born.

Renaud de Vichiers

Renaud de Vichiers was the 19th Grand Master of the Knights Templar, from 1250 to 1256.

He was a supporter and comrade-in-arms of Louis IX of France, who helped him be elected Master. He shortly quarreled with Louis, though, over a diplomatic mission of Hugues de Jouy, the Templar Marshal, to Damascus. In 1252 Hugues was banished from the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Thomas Bérard

Thomas Bérard (also Béraud or Bérault) was the 20th Grand Master of the Knights Templar, from 1256 to 1273.

He wrote several letters to the King Henry III of England describing miserable situation in the Holy Land. He initiated cooperation with other two military orders since there had been much rivalry among them before. This was agreed upon by their Grand Masters: Hugo de Revel of Hospitaliers and Anno von Sangershausen of Teutonic Knights. In 1266 the large Templar fortress Safed was besieged by Egyptian Mameluks after a failed attempt to conquer Pilgrim's Castle. It appears that the garrison were betrayed by a hired Syrian soldier. All Templars (Hospitallers as well) were beheaded after they refused to convert to Islam. Other fortresses fell next, among them Beaufort, only recently acquired by the Templars. Also, the city of Antioch fell to Baybars (the Mamluk commander) and was never again held by Christian forces. The fall of Antioch left Templar fortresses in Amman's mountains easily accessible to attackers. Gaston, an immensely strong fortification on the road to Syria, was defended only by a small Templar garrison. Nevertheless they decided to hold the fortress. They were betrayed by one of the brothers. Meanwhile the Grand Master Thomas Bérard sent a messenger carrying an order to retreat to La Roche Guillaume. In February 1271, Chastel Blanc surrendered on orders of the Grand Master Thomas Bérard with permission to retreat to Tortosa. In June, however, Montfort, the last inland fortification of Christians in the Holy Land, was yielded.

Offline Monsignor de Beaumanoir

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Re: Following Orders
« Reply #352 on: August 04, 2008, 09:20:09 AM »

Guillaume de Beaujeu

Guillaume de Beaujeu, also known as William of Beaujeu was the 21st Grand Master of the Knights Templar, from 1273 until his death during the siege of Acre in 1291.

At one point during the siege, he dropped his sword and walked away from the walls. His knights remonstrated. Beaujeu replied: "Je ne m'enfuis pas; je suis mort. Voici le coup." ("I'm not running away; I am dead. Here is the blow.") He raised his arm to show the mortal wound he had received.

Thibaud Gaudin

Thibaud Gaudin (1229? – April 16, 1292) was the Grand Master of the Knights Templar from August 1291 until his death in April 1292.

The history of Thibaud Gaudin within the Order is rather mysterious. Born to a noble family in the area of Chartres or Blois, France, he entered the Knights Templars well before 1260, because on that date he was taken prisoner during an attack on Tiberias. His great piety was deemed worthy of the nickname of "Gaudin Monk".

In 1279, Sir Thibaud fulfills the function of "Commander of the Land of Jerusalem", the fourth most important function in the Templar hierarchy. In 1291, he rides at the side of Guillaume de Beaujeu to defend the town of Acre, besieged by the formidable army of Mamluk Sultan Al-Ashraf Khalil. On 18 May, upon the death of Guillaume de Beaujeu, Gaudin remains in the city of Acre in garrison with some 500. Thibaud Gaudin and Pierre de Sevry, Marshal of the Order, are the last two knights of the Temple who continue to defend Acre. Al-Ashraf Khalil sends messengers to the defenders of the castle of the Temple in order to negotiate an honorable outcome. Thibaud Gaudin and Pierre de Sevry agree to yield to the conditions dictated by the sultan and let a detachment of Moslem riders into their enclosure. As soon as the soldiers entered, they caught some French women. Thinking that to be a treasonous act, Thibaud Gaudin and Pierre de Sevry ordered the Moslems be thrown of the walls. The two dignitaries decide that Thibaud Gaudin will leave the city by sea, carrying the treasures of the Temple, while Pierre de Sevry will continue the combat. Acre falls the following day.

Thibaud Gaudin arrives at Sidon with some knights where he is elected Master and decides to defend the city as long as possible. Just before the arrival of emir Al-Shujâ' I, the inhabitants evacuate the city and take refuge behind the walls of the Templar castle. With the assistance of Cypriots, the majority of the inhabitants and garrison evacuate the fortress to take refuge in Cyprus. Arriving at Cyprus, Thibaud Gaudin tries to gather reinforcements but they never reach the Holy Land. Sidon falls to the Moslems on July 14, 1291. The last French strongholds in the Kingdom of Jerusalem fall one by one. Beirut is taken on July 21, the area of Kaifa is invaded and the monasteries of Carmel destroyed on July 30. In early August, the Franks hold nothing more than two fortified towns, both occupied by Templars. Tortose is evacuated on August 3 and Castle-Pélerin on August 14. By then, all Templars are located in Cyprus in Ruad in the south of Tortose, which will remain in their hands until 1303.

In October 1291, a general chapter of the Order meets in Cyprus. This meeting confirms the election of Thibaud Gaudin as Grand Master and names new dignitaries in the important positions within the hierarchy of the Order. On that occasion, Jacques de Molay was named Marshal, to succeed Pierre de Sevry, who died at Acre. Thibaud Gaudin tried to reorganize all the Templars after the devastations of the recent battles. Moreover, it was necessary for him to defend of the Kingdom of Armenia from the encircled Turkish Seldjoukides and the island of Cyprus, occupied by a multitude of refugees. Apparently the task proved daunting for Thibaud Gaudin; he died of exhaustion at the beginning of the year 1292, leaving an enormous rebuilding task for his successor.

Jacques de Molay

Jacques de Molay (est. 1244–5/1249–50 – 18 March 1314), a minor Burgundian noble, served as the 23rd and officially last Grand Master of the Knights Templar.

 He is probably the best known Templar besides the order's founder and first grand master, Hugues de Payens. Upon his election before 20 April 1292, he promised to reform the order and adjust it to the situation in the Holy Land. With no crusader states remaining to protect and with other problems surfacing, the right of the order to exist was in question. However, he was unable to lead the Templars through the inquisitions made against them and was burned at the stake on the Île de la Cité, an island in the Seine river in Paris on 18 March 1314. The execution was ordered by Philip IV after Jacques retracted all of his previous confessions, which outraged the French king. Nothing is known about two thirds of his life.

Jacques de Molay's exact date of birth is in some doubt, but when interrogated by the judges in Paris, 24 October 1307, he stated that he entered the order forty-two years earlier, which would mean in 1265. The common imperial age for joining an order was minimum 20 years of age, and thus he most likely would have been born in 1244 or 1245. However, there exist several documents proving that men younger than 20-21 years were accepted into the order, hence the birth year confusion. An interesting fact involves that when questioned about the same thing in August the following year by the Pope's envoys at Chinon, he again told he was received into the order forty-two years earlier, i.e. 1266. Jacques de Molay was born into, most likely, a family of minor nobility, as most of the Templars were, at Molay (Haute-Saône) in the county of Burgundy, at the time ruled by Otto III.

He was received into the order at Beaune by Humbert de Pairaud, the Visitor of France and England in 1265. Independently of Guillaume de Beaujeu, who was elected grand master in 1273, Jacques de Molay went to the East (Outremer) around 1270. He spent all his career as a Templar in the East, although he is mentioned to be in France in 1285. It is not known if he held any offices in either the West or the East, or if he was present when Acre, the last crusader city and capital of the Latin kingdom fell in May 1291 to the Mamluks.
After the fall of Acre, the Franks who were able retreated to Cyprus, this including Jacques de Molay and Thibaud Gaudin, the 22nd Grand Master of the Temple. During a meeting assembled on the island in the autumn of 1291, J. de Molay spoke and pointed to himself as an alternative and reformer of the order. Before 16 April 1292 Gaudin died, leaving the mastership open for Jacques de Molay, as there were no other serious contenders for the role at the time. The election took place before 20 April, as a document in the archives of the Crown of Aragon attests and recognizes Jacques de Molay as the Knights Templar's new grand master by then.

Once elected, the rapid establishment of the command of the order was meant to deal with the most serious matters first. These were the subjects of Cyprus and Armenia of Cilicia, which both were under the threat of an attack from the Mamluks. In spring 1293 he began a tour to the West which brought him to Provence, Catalonia, Italy, England and France. There he settled several local and internal problems, but mainly the goal was to ask for help from the western rulers and the Church in the reconquest of the Holy Land, strengthening the defence of Cyprus and the rebuilding of Templar forces. Talk of a crusade was even at hand, but a more troubling issue was brought upon de Molay, the merging of the orders of the Temple and the Hospital, an idea he was opposed to and would continue to be against. He held two general meetings of his order at Montpellier in 1293 and at Arles in 1296, where he tried to make reforms. During his journey, Jacques de Molay made a close relationship with Pope Boniface VIII and relationships of trust with Edward I of England, James I of Aragon and Charles II of Naples. Nothing is known of his relationship with Philip IV of France.

In the autumn of 1296 de Molay was back in Cyprus to defend his order against the interests of Henry II of Cyprus, which conflict had its roots back in the days of Guillaume de Beaujeu.

From 1299 to 1303 de Molay promoted cooperation with the Mongols against the Mamluks. The plan was to coordinate actions between the Christian military orders, the King of Cyprus, the aristocracy of Cyprus and Little Armenia and the Mongols of the khanate of Ilkhan (Persia).

In 1298 or 1299, Jacques de Molay halted a further Mamluk invasion with military force in Armenia possibly because of the loss of Roche-Guillaume, the last Templar stronghold in Cilicia, to the Mamluks. However, when the Mongol khan of Persia, Ghâzân, defeated the Mamluks in the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar in December 1299, the Christian forces were not ready to take an advantage of the situation.

In 1300, Jacques de Molay and other forces from Cyprus put together a fleet of 16 ships which committed raids along the Egyptian and Syrian coasts. The force was commanded by King Henry II of Jerusalem, the king of Cyprus, accompanied by his brother, Amalric, Lord of Tyre the heads of the military orders, and the ambassador of the Mongol leader Ghazan. The ships left Famagusta on July 20, 1300, to raid the coasts of Egypt and Syria: Rosette, Alexandria, Acre, Tortosa, and Maraclea, before returning to Cyprus. The raids along the way were directed by Admiral Baudoin de Picquigny, and when the raids took place at Alexandria, they were able to free Christian prisoners who had been captive since the Fall of Acre in 1291.

The ships then returned to Cyprus, and prepared for an attack on Tortosa in late 1300. The Cypriots sent a joint force to a staging area on the island of Ruad, from which raids were launched on Tortosa, while awaiting the arrival of the Mongols. However, Ghazan's forces were delayed, and the Crusader forces ended up returning to Cyprus, leaving a garrison on Ruad. When Ghazan did arrive in February 1301, he was only able to engage in some minor raids before having to withdraw.

Plans for combined operations were again made for the following winter offensive. A letter has been kept from Jacques de Molay to Edward I, and dated April 8, 1301, informing him of the troubles encountered by Ghazan, but announcing that Ghazan was supposed to come in Autumn:

"And our convent, with all our galleys and 'tarides' [light galleys][lacuna] has been transported to the isle of Tortosa to await Ghazan's army and his Tartars."
—Jacques de Molay, letter to Edward I, April 8, 1301

And in a letter to the king of Aragon a few months later:

"The king of Armenia had sent his messengers to the king of Cyprus to tell him . . . that Ghazan was now on the point of coming to the sultan's lands with a multitude of Tartars. Knowing this, we now intend to go to the isle of Tortosa, where our convent has remained all this year with horses and arms, causing much damage to the casaux along the coast and capturing many Saracens. We intend to go there and settle in to await the Tartars."
—Jacques de Molay, letter to the king of Aragon, 1301

In November that year, De Molay joined the occupation of the tiny fortress island of Ruad (today called Arwad) which faced the Syrian town of Tortosa. The intent was to establish a bridgehead to await assistance from the Mongols, but the Mongols failed to appear in 1300. The same happened in 1301 and 1302. In September 1302 the Templars were driven out of Ruad by the attacking Mamluk forces from Egypt, and many were massacred when trapped on the island. The island of Ruad was lost in the Siege of Ruad on September 26, 1302, and when Ghâzân died in 1304 Jacques de Molay's dream of a rapid reconquest of the Holy Land was destroyed.

In 1305, the newly elected pope Clement V asked the leaders of the military orders of their opinions on a new crusade and the merging of the orders. Jacques de Molay was asked by the Pope to write two memoranda, one on each of the issues, which he did during the summer of 1306. On 6 June, the leaders were officially asked to come to Poitiers, where the Pope had his seat, to discuss these matters. The meeting at Poitiers was delayed due to the Pope's illness, unbeknownst to de Molay, who had already left Cyprus around 15 October. De Molay arrived in France in late November or early December, but nothing is known of his activities during the first five months of 1307. In the second half of May he was in Poitiers attending the meeting with the Pope. The Grand Master came into conflict with Philippe IV because he rejected the idea of merging the two orders into one with Phillipe as leader (Rex Bellator, or War King). This made more difficult the Pope's problem with the King, who wanted at all costs to condemn the memory of Boniface VIII. Also, it furthermore thwarted the attempts to get a new crusade on its way. These conflicts were weakening the Templar Order along with something that would turn out to be far more serious, something Jacques de Molay had discovered during his journey through France: scandalous and perverse rumours and whispers about the order had begun to surface. The king and his councillors, among them Guillaume de Nogaret, knew to exploit this weakness.

Jacques de Molay spoke with the king in Paris on 24 June 1307 about the accusations against his order and was partially reassured. Returning to Poitiers, he asked the pope to set up an inquiry to quickly clear the order of the rumours and accusations surrounding it. When the pope announced that an inquiry would be convened 24 August, the king acted decisively. On 14 September, in the deepest secrecy, he sent out his orders throughout all of France which resulted in the mass arrests of Templars and confiscation of their possessions in the whole country on Friday, 13 October 1307. Jacques de Molay was arrested in Paris, where he intended to be present at the funeral of Catherine of Valois.
During an interrogation by royal agents on October 24, Jacques confessed only to "denying Christ and trampling on the Cross" as a part of the initiation ritual. Jacques de Molay's possible intention was that this couldn't possibly be very harmful to the order, but when he was forced to repeat this statement in public the next day, the damage was devastating for the Templars. Making things even worse, he was made to write a letter where he expressed that every Templar should admit to these acts. Philippe IV was now in full command of the situation, and in order to regain his authority, Pope Clement V ordered the arrest of all the Templars throughout Christendom.

The pope still wanted to hear Jacques de Molay, and dispatched two cardinals to Paris in December 1307. In front of them, Jacques retracted his confessions made to the agents of Philippe IV. By then, the affair had resulted in a power struggle between the king and the pope, which was settled in August 1308, when the king and the pope agreed to split the convictions. Through the Bull Fasciens misericordiam the procedure to prosecute the Templars was set out on a duality where the first commission would judge individuals of the order and the second commission would judge the order as an entity. In practice this meant that a council seated at Vienne was to decide the future of the Temple, while the Temple dignitaries, among them Jacques de Molay, were to be judged by the Pope. In the royal palace at Chinon, Jacques de Molay was again questioned by the cardinals, but this time with royal agents present. He returned to his admissions made on 24 October 1307, after which there was silence for a year. Slowly the commissions and inquisitions were put in place, and finally, in November 1309, the Papal Commission for the Kingdom of France began its hearings. On two instances, on 26 and 28 November, Jacques explicitly stated that he did not acknowledge the accusations brought against his order. By so doing, he thus turned to a strategy of silence before the Commission, counting on the power of the church to prevail over the will of the king

By remaining silent, Jaques de Molay deprived the Templars of leadership; thereafter, the order was able to offer little resistance to the threat it faced. Any further opposition was effectively broken when the archbishop of Sens, Philippe de Marigny, sentenced 54 Templars to be burnt at the stake on 10-12 May 1310. At the Council of Vienne on 22 March 1312, the order was abolished by papal decree. Almost two years later, on March 18, 1314, three cardinals sent by the pope sentenced the Temple dignitaries Jacques de Molay, Hugues de Pairaud, Geoffroy de Charney and Geoffroy de Gonneville to life imprisonment. Realizing that all was lost, Jacques de Molay rose up and recanted. Along with Geoffroy de Charney, he proclaimed his order's innocence, before challenging the king and pope before God. Furious, Philippe IV ordered them both burned at the stake. On the eve of 18 March 1314, Jacques de Molay and Geoffroy de Charnay were taken to the Isle des Juifs, now incorporaed into the Île de la Cité, where they were executed. Note the fourteenth century print show the execution on a small island separated from the Isle de la Cite'.)

In 2002, a copy of the Chinon Parchment in the Vatican Secret Archives, a document which explicitly confirms that Pope Clement V secretly absolved Jacques de Molay and other leaders of the Order in 1308.

Offline Sir William Marcus

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Re: Following Orders
« Reply #353 on: August 04, 2008, 09:43:33 AM »
Most excellent my brother!

VENI, VIDI, VELCRO! Spelling and grammatical errors are beyond my control, it's the way I'm wired.

Offline Femme Falchion

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Re: Following Orders
« Reply #354 on: August 04, 2008, 11:55:32 AM »
*a dazzling well-armored woman raises her hand in the back of the lecture hall*

"Um, Professor Monk, how many Grand Masters must we be familiar with for the exam tomorrow?"
 ;) :D :D
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Offline Monsignor de Beaumanoir

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Re: Following Orders
« Reply #355 on: August 04, 2008, 12:02:27 PM »
M'lady, the answer to your question is simple.......why all of them of course.  ;)

It's not like the Orders of the Hospital and the Teutonic lads who remain in existence to this day....  ;D

Offline Sir William Marcus

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Re: Following Orders
« Reply #356 on: August 04, 2008, 12:44:50 PM »
Like Teutonic Grandmaster "Bruno Platter" ....

..and newly appointed Hospitaller Grandmaster or Grandmaster of the Sovereign Military of Malta "Matthew Festing"

VENI, VIDI, VELCRO! Spelling and grammatical errors are beyond my control, it's the way I'm wired.

Offline Monsignor de Beaumanoir

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Re: Following Orders
« Reply #357 on: August 04, 2008, 12:49:54 PM »
Yes, exactly..... ;)

Offline Femme Falchion

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Re: Following Orders
« Reply #358 on: August 04, 2008, 12:57:41 PM »
now that's contemporary.....a Pope who smokes and is on the juice!
  :o :o

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Offline Monsignor de Beaumanoir

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Re: Following Orders
« Reply #359 on: August 04, 2008, 01:00:52 PM »
That's simply the "power" of belief and commitment.  :P ;) ;D


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